Cosmological Model

Following chapters desribe a cosmological model with a supermassive “black hole” in its centre. It is being assumed, that all matter of the Universe, bound by gravitation, are circling and orbiting around that centre  (Model.

1. Introduction

Reports have been published, according to which supermassive “black holes” were found in the centre of several  galaxies (s. Ref). This takes me back to ideas, about which I pondered several decades ago. My  assumption was, that there exists a super-massive “black hole” in the centre of our Universe, which I called “Energie-Nullpunkt” at that time. Attempts to discuss my ideas then did not go very far, but some correspondence is still available. I am aware, of course, that my model does not fit into prevailing theories, but nevertheless here is a description:

2. The Model

The main characteristics of my cosmological model are as follows:

In the centre of our Universe rests a supermassive “black hole” (1), which I now may call “Central Point – CP”. All matter of the Universe (2) circulate and orbit around this CP, kept by gravitation.

At the periphery of the Universe there are only elementary particles, as for instance particles of  solar wind etc (3). These particles may join up as a result of mutual attraction (gravitation or other force), then circling about their common centre of mass. They are forming an elementary atom (4), which gravitates towards the CP, as some potential energy of the particles goes into the rotating motion.

The elementary atom attracts and captures additional particles. Thereby a nucleus must be formed, since more than two particles of similiar mass cannot circle about a common centre of mass. The atom, now with a nucleus, gravitates again towards the CP (5). This process repeats itself several times, heavier atoms (6) are then accumulating close to the CP.

As density of matter increases close to the CP, clouds are building up, contracting around nuclei to form stars, star systems and galaxies (7). This causes fusion as well as break up of atoms, leading to radiation. With radiation starting, elementary particles are flung back to outer regions of the Universe. The process begins again.

3. Conclusions

The described cosmological model leads to following conclusions:

(a) Matter in the process of building up is gravitating towards the CP (contraction). Energy is being absorbed, there are no signals. Matter in the stage of building up is invisible (dark matter).

(b) Disintegrating matter is being carried away from the CP (expansion), giving off energy by means of light and other radiation. Disintegrating matter is visible.

(c) Our visible Universe expands, in measuring this expansion the relativistic redshift caused by gravitation of the CP must be taken into account.

(d) The speed of light is not constant. It varies with the radius of the Universe and its mean density.  At the periphery of the Universe (3) there is no light, and density of matter and speed of light there goes towards zero. Density of matter, speed of light and energy content of atoms are the higher, the closer to the CP.

(e) Only most simple elementary particles can exist at the periphery of the Universe. Heavy atoms, stars and star systems, even “black holes” are disintegrating and breaking up or are exploding, as they are reaching outer regions of the Universe.

(f) Galaxies with their central “black holes” are in principle smaller copies of the total Universe, and there are still smaller copies in the galaxies. Building up and disintegration of matter may occur – subordinated – in these sub- and subsub-systems the same way as described.

(g) It is beyond our capacity of imagination, but theoretically possible, that our Universe also is only a subsystem, one among many others. With this there may be a gigantic super-massive “black hole” in the centre of a  “Super-Universe”.  If so, the CP of our Universe might have exploded (Big Bang) the same way, as “black holes” of galaxies will be exploding, when they are reaching outer regions of our Universe.  In such a scenario the well known “Big-Bang-Theory” could explain the expansion of our Universe.

4. Testing

Pondering about ways for testing the described model leads to following consideration:  Gravitational forces from the centre of our galaxy are doubtlessly affecting to a minor extent the orbits of planets and moons, as well as the orbits of artificial satellites. Will it be possible to determine such probably minuscule effects?  If so, there might be a chance, to also detect similiar effects caused by the CP. Abundant orbit data are certainly available as working material.

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4 responses to “Cosmological Model

  1. Black hole and Big bang.
    ============== ….
    1.
    A black hole is a theoretical region of space in which the
    gravitational field is so powerful that nothing can escape.
    2.
    Hawking Radiation theorizes that black holes do not,
    in fact, absorb all matter absolutely; they give off some
    return matter.
    3.
    Once upon a time, 20 billions of years ago, all matter
    (all elementary particles and all quarks and their
    girlfriends- antiparticles and antiquarks, all kinds of
    waves: electromagnetic, gravitational, muons…
    gluons field ….. etc.) – was assembled in a ‘single point ‘

    The reason of this unity is gravitational force.
    4.
    How does this ‘single point ‘ created if the matter
    can escape from any strong gravitational force?
    #
    Questions :
    1.
    What was before: big bang or vacuum ?
    2.
    Does Gravitation Field exist in Vacuum or vice versa?
    ==== .
    Best wishes.
    Israel Sadovnik. / Socratus.

    http://www.worldnpa.org/php2/index.php?tab0=Scientists&tab1=Display&id=1372
    ===================== . .

  2. Where is hidden Vacuum? / The unknown Universe /
    Vacuum is hidden in every theory.
    1.
    Thermodynamics needs the Void/ Emptiness/ Vacuum.
    2.
    Maxwell electrodynamics needs the Void/ Emptiness/ Vacuum.
    3.
    SRT needs the Void/ Emptiness/ Vacuum.
    4
    GRT needs with the Void/ Emptiness/ Vacuum.
    5.
    Atom heeds the Void/ Emptiness/ Vacuum.
    6.
    Outer space needs with the Void/ Emptiness/ Vacuum.
    7.
    Religion doesn’t exist without the Void/ Emptiness/ Vacuum.
    ====.
    The Vacuum is Source of the Universe
    The Vacuum is Source of Consciousness.
    The Vacuum is Fundamental Theory 0f Existence.

    1. The infinite/ energy vacuum: T=0K,
    2. The particle: C/D = pi, R/N= k , E = Mc^2 = kc^2 , h = 0 , i^2= -1
    3. The spins: h =E/t , h =kb, h* = h/2pi ,
    4. The photon, the inertia,
    5. The electron: e^2 = h*ca, E = h*f , electromagnetic field
    6. The gravitation, the star/ planet, the time,
    7. The proton,
    8. The atom(s),
    9. The cell(s),
    10. The Laws:
    a) The Law of conservation and transformation energy/mass
    b) The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle / Law
    c) The Pauli Exclusion Principle/ Law
    11. The test.
    =========.

    Best wishes.
    Israel Sadovnik Socratus
    ===============.
    P.S.
    The Future of Science
    When the next revolution rocks physics,
    chances are it will be about nothing—the vacuum, that endless
    infinite void.
    http://discovermagazine.com/topics/space
    http://discovermagazine.com/2008/aug/18-nothingness-of-space-theory-of-everything
    !
    ================ . .

  3. In 1928 Dirac proved the Existence of Vacuum
    and ‘ virtual energetic particles’.
    ( Dirac’s sea and +E=Mc^2 and –E=Mc^2 )
    Now we need to concrete and to understand some details.
    For example:
    1.
    How can the ‘ virtual energetic particles’ with potential
    energy –E=Mc^2 change into real particles with
    active energy +E=Mc^2?
    2.
    How can the ‘ virtual energetic particles’ produce EM waves?
    3.
    How can the ‘ virtual energetic particles’ without mass
    produce real mass?
    4.
    How can the ‘ virtual energetic particles’ create Gravity?
    5.
    How can the ‘ virtual energetic particles’ create Atom?
    6.
    Can the ‘ virtual energetic particles’ be source of Consciousness?
    7.
    Can we talking about Evolution of the ‘ virtual energetic particles’?
    8.
    Can the Vacuum and ‘ virtual energetic particles’ be basis of
    Fundamental Theory 0f Existence?
    =======.

  4. Some more details.

    THE GENESIS. (scheme.)
    1
    In the beginning was Vacuum some kind of
    Infinite/ Eternal Energy Space: T = 0K
    2
    According to Quantum Theory this Infinite/ Eternal Energy
    Space create ‘ virtual energetic particles – frozen light quanta ’
    They are in the rest/ potential condition and have following
    physical parameters:
    Geometrical form : C/D = pi
    Potential mass : R/N=k
    Potential energy : E = Mc^2 = kc^2
    Inner impulse : h = 0
    Mathematical formula : i^2= -1
    3
    Moving Quantum of Light is a Photon

    Planck: h =E/t h = 1, c=1.
    Einstein: h =kb h =1, c =1
    4
    Working Quantum of Light / Photon is an Electron

    Goudsmit-Uhlenbeck: h* = h/2pi , c>1
    E = h*f
    Sommerfeld: e^2 = h*ca (Electron)
    The Lorentz transformations
    5
    Star formation:
    e- -> k -> He II -> He I -> rotating He –> plasma reaction –
    – -> thermonuclear reaction: ( P. Kapitza , L. Landau,
    E.L. Andronikashvili theories )
    ( Theories of superconductivity and superfluidity.)
    a) h*f > kT
    b) h*f = kT
    c) kT > h*f
    6
    As result of Star formation Proton was created
    p ( Proton)
    7
    Evolution of interaction between Electron and Proton:
    a) electromagnetic
    b) nuclear
    c) biological
    8
    The Laws:
    a) The Law of conservation and transformation energy/ mass
    b) The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle / Law
    c) The Pauli Exclusion Principle/ Law
    9.
    Every theory must be tested logically ( theoretical ) and practically
    a) Theory : Dualism of Consciousness: (consciousness/ subconsciousness)
    b) Practice : Parapsychology . Meditation
    ==== .
    #
    The Future of Science is hidden in the ‘Theory of Vacuum and Light Quanta’
    #
    I want to know how God created this world
    I am not interested in this or that phenomenon,
    in the spectrum of this or that element
    I want to know His thoughts; the rest are details
    /Einstein/
    ==========.
    #
    There is a strong tradition ( scientific and religious) that insists
    that any time we say we know who God is, or what God wants,
    we are committing an act of heresy.
    == .
    Best wishes.
    Israel Sadovnik. Socratus.

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